Justice League (2017) directed by Zack Snyder and written by Joss Whedon and Chris Terrio may not have enjoyed great commercial success. However, it is notable for introducing important DC Comics characters, expanding the DC Extended Universe into the multiversal world of the New Gods. A central element of the story, revolves around the Mother Box. In DC Comics continuity, this sophisticated artifact is created by the New Gods, a race of metaphysical beings born from the First World at the beginning, Urgrund, forming with New Genesis and Apokolips, a Fourth World. This fictional technology is possessed by the New Gods and enables them to bridge time and space for multiple applications. The Mother Box, is essentially, a sentient super-computer that grants its New God user fantastic abilities such as levitation and flight, teleportation, and matter and energy manipulations.
In the film, the boxes are presented as a perpetual energy source, called by Cyborg’s father, Silas Stone, a Change Engine. Upon an invasion of Earth by Apokoliptian Steppenwolf during mythological times, the three Mother Boxes are entrusted to the Amazons, the Atlanteans, and the tribes of man and guarded in secure strongholds. The premise of the movie, then, reposes on the return of Steppenwolf upon the Death of Superman in Batman v. Superman: Dawn of Justice, a casualty of the battle against Doomsday alongside Batman and Wonder Woman; he sees the demise of the Kryptonian as the fall of darkness upon the Earth and an opportunity to conquer.
Justice League, is in fact, a movie of two directors. Upon the death of his daughter — by suicide — Zach Snyder stepped down from the movie project duties to stay with family. From that moment, Joss Whedon took over and directed the movie. The movie appears to showcase the lightheartedness and the humor that is characteristic of Whedon’s work, particularly on Marvel’s The Avengers. Snyder mentioned that, he had always intended for the film to be brighter and more hopeful than Batman v. Superman: Dawn of Justice. The movie does appear so. At the same time, it seems to lack the spectacle and the grand action characteristic of previous Snyder work, which seem to reveal, perhaps, the conflict that the director was experiencing over the critical reception with his two previous outings at Warner Bros. in the DC Extended Universe. Was Snyder’s vision, perhaps, darker than the film seems to portray as reflected in Batman v. Superman?
“The Age of Heroes”
Justice League is distinctive for its association of the events of mythology with science fiction. In this respect, it relates the invasion of Earth by Apokolips to the Olympian gods, and even to alien allies. Wonder Woman, in her history lesson, speaks of an Age of Heroes, where men and women of great power blessed by the Olympian gods walked the Earth. It is, perhaps, this Age of Heroes, that is the substance of Justice League — here, the newly formed Justice League succeeds the place of the old Greek pantheon and of its associated heroes. It is a meta-fictional transposition of mythology to science fiction; it figures, then, as the placement of science fiction as functioning in a similar role to the mythology of yesteryear. The film, then, succeeds in this aspect: in reflecting its heroes, as the successors of mythology, an Olympic passing of the torch so to speak, where man, no longer animated simply by the belief in God, reflects a superhuman power of evolution — this, then, is the reality: the gods for having abandoned humanity, have allowed man to evolve with the powers of science and technology.
In this regard, the Mother Box, an alien transposition, figures as that power of evolution, the inauguration of a new age, where through advanced science, man lays claim even to the power of life over death — the Resurrection of Superman!
There are interesting themes addressed in Justice League, from alien invasion, to advanced technology, from mythology to a new age of heroes, and to the more simple power of friendship and the reality of war. What separates the film from other comic book movies, is its adherence to a certain comedy — though the movie is serious, it is also comedic and figures as a chance for the DC Extended Universe to extend its reach and follow, in a sense, a formulaic route threaded before long by Marvel with great success. Critical reviews show, however, that, despite its optimism and light-hearted nature, such a treatment may not be entirely fitting for a team of gods among men. The consensus is that Justice League does not fully develop its main villain — Steppenwolf, and its action sequences are lacking — the result, is a story that appears thin and formulaic, despite its brighter tone.
In comic book lore, the Mother Box figures as a representation of the New Gods, an advanced race of techno-gods entrenched in a deadly battle between good and evil, that is, between New Genesis and Apokolips. It is certain, that, the boxes are in themselves, evocative of a power that transcends humanity and seems to unveil the potential for progress that is inherent to human civilization. The applications of an advanced Artificial Intelligence, to the problems of civilization are wondrous. The question is whether, as many artistic works are raised, man will become enslaved by the power of the super-computer, or whether his wisdom will benefit humanity. The computer, is a wondrous machine that greatly enhances quality of life; however, it appears to foretell the times of a society that is completely socialized, that is, interpreted by the rhythm of the machine — the mechanization of life! Hence, there are dangers looming in the horizon of humanity, and as human knowledge increases, it is important to question our ability to put progress at the service of man, and not merely, to serve utilitarian interest or the temptation to nihilism; for science, despite its eminent benefit, can prove a power of destruction as much as it is a force of civilization.
Is the comic book here to stay, or, perhaps has it run its course? Only time will tell. It can be safely assumed that, its adaptation to the big screen is surely costly though, at the same time, its power to inspire minds is almost without equal. Mythological beings, alien gods, advanced technology, perpetual energy sources, planetary engineering, and superhuman feats — science fiction has succeeded in creating worlds that defy explanation, revealing that, man at this juncture in the 21st century, is attempting to evolve truly.
Justice League marks an important step in the extension of the DC Extended Universe. Despite its shortcomings, it betrays Warner Bros. desire to truly do its characters justice and present them in the best possible light, in respect with their comic book mythology and with a manifest desire to appeal to general audiences. Personally, I favor a more serious approach to the DC mythology, one that establishes their place as modern mythology in contrast to the Marvel universe; indeed, DC superheroes function best, when they are regarded as archetypes, representations of the Olympian gods, but also of greater ideas, virtues and values. They can steer history towards a greater future, for they help humanity realize its potential by believing in the power of the gods and the example of heroism.
In the “Introduction” to All Star Superman, Mark Waid concludes with the following remarks:
“Gods achieve their power by encouraging us to believe in them.
Superman achieves his power by believing in us.”
Art expresses something of the symbol of the natural world, it is an imitation of life, for it seeks to convey through symbol, audio and visual image, a reflection, a truth, and the goodness of life itself. In contemporary life, there subsists a strained relation between the artistic expression and aesthetics — the philosophy of beauty — and it is certain that, this results from the loss of the religious sentiment of life: the contemplation of Beauty, found in the permanence of God, has ceded the place for praxis, that is, technology and a certain affection for only the consumerist production of things.
Zack Snyder foremost known for his comic book film direction, as evidenced in his successful Watchmen (2009) adaptation, once held a vision for the DC Extended Universe; a vision not shared nor accepted by all. Yet, it was ground-breaking, fresh, and took creative chances. It involved a re-telling of DC Comics characters, grounding them truly in reality and expanding their world to grant them more human motivations; while, however, robing them in the mythology characteristic of the DC Comics universe. The re-imagining of Superman is Man of Steel appears part of that conception, found in the tale of an alien among humans, who, despite their ignorance, their unbelief, and their innate xenophobia, chooses to become their greatest champion in the face of an alien invasion.
The world created by Zach Snyder seems an antithesis of Richard Donner’s; a vibrant world with landscapes teeming with animal creatures, on land and on air, which though harsh contrasts obliquely with the cold, lifeless world of the first Superman: The Movie. Both films are consistent in portraying the almost organic relation of Kryptonian technology with their home world, and Snyder’s visual tour de force is on display in the first twenty minutes where political debate over Krypton’s coming implosion yields way to unrelenting actions. Superman, indeed, is a man of action, and Snyder wastes no time in emphasizing this reality, showing that, even scientist Jor-El shows battle prowess against the battle-tested military leader Zod.
Zack Snyder appears to be comfortable with philosophical questions, addressing problems that are related with the fate of civilizations, and advanced races. The prospects of a world of superhumans is one, that, depending on the person and the taste, may have some appeal, though, not without their own perils. Comic book lore is well documented, here. It is a well known fact, that, Krypton was an advanced alien civilization that had adopted an almost totalitarian political structure, or perhaps, a theocratic structure where science and religion collaborated to form a population where Kryptonians from birth were genetically engineered to fulfill a pre-determined role using as, revealed, in Man of Steel, the registry of citizens called the Codex — this, is the danger of genetic engineering, of a world, where following upon an unfortunate development, population control is established, space exploration and cultural contact are banned, and a civilization exhausts its planet’s resources. In our own day, this raises our current ecological problems as well as the continued philosophical questions raised by technology and its use by governments that in their Leviathan conquest are continually putting to silence the notions of human liberty and rights.
The element of choice — Man of Steel reinvents Superman for post-modern audiences drawing upon comic book materials as Superman: Secret Origin and Superman: Birthright. What separates Henry Cavill’s iteration of Superman is that, here, Superman is clearly a man of destiny, one formed by his parents to elect his own destiny: “Krypton’s first natural birth in centuries”. Hence, everything in Man of Steel‘s narrative emphasizes Kal-El’s uniqueness from the animals greeting his natural birth, to the bonding of the Codex within his individual cells, to his being rocketed to Earth in a space ship as Krypton explodes, to his gradual discovery of his powers and alien heritage, and finally, the controversial death of his father, the loss of his remaining alien ancestry as the invading Kryptonians are sucked into a black hole, to his murder of Zod, the villain of the movie — Superman, is truly in this movie, the Last Son of Krypton, a victim of prejudice and xenophobia from a young age and throughout his life, growing up an outcast journeying the world in search of clues offering answers to his questioning.
“What if a child dreamed of becoming something other than what society had intended? What if a child aspired to something greater?”
Man of Steel received mixed reviews criticized for being too serious, lacking heart and joy — Superman barely smiles — and being characterized by overblown destruction reminiscent, in fact, of 9/11. Zach Snyder has been criticized during his career, for poor storytelling skills, and there are, indeed, instances in the film where this is glaring. The Man of Steel IGN review claimed that “Superman is reborn in high fashion”. Some reviews have pointed out that the film is a religious allegory, one that seems to align Superman with the historical figure of Jesus Christ. These claims are true, and though the movie presents primarily as science fiction with themes of alien invasion, it also incorporates religious symbology.
The film is inherently a visual spectacle and when Superman appears in costume for the first time, there is a sense of greatness. Zack Snyder excels at visual cinematography, action sequences and the First Flight features great displays of power. Superman soars for the first time, after having lept in single bounds! This is a scene reminiscent of the evolution of Superman’s powers over his storied history: from the ability to leap, to the transcendent power of flight that surpasses the force of gravity. Superman succeeds in re-connecting with his heritage, finding a Kryptonian scout ship that had been in a glacier in the Canadian Arctic for 18,000 years. This triggers a distress beacon that alerts General Zod and the surviving Kryptonian insurgents freed from the Phantom Zone by the explosion of the planet Krypton.
The second act of the movie commences with the first alien contact with the Kryptonians. On every screen on Earth and in every language, the phrase “You are not alone” is transcribed before the menacing voice of General Zod speaks. Superman is faced with the prophecy of his father: to stand proud in front of the human race or choose to oppose them by joining his Kryptonian heritage. What is revealed, is the fact, that, despite his mother’s guidance and his budding affection for Lois Lane, Clark Kent remains alone to face his own choices and bear the burdens of his destiny. Perhaps, here is raised the fact that, The Last Son of Krypton is eminently a figure of tragedy, a giant who, for all his otherworldly power, must continually be willing to take a leap of faith, and make the sacrifice for the benefit of the human race.
The Battle of Smallville, is the highlight of the movie for it literally puts to the fore the human element enmeshed in a battle between alien gods. Superman’s confrontation of Zod, and Faora and Nam-Ek is spectacular and visually satisfying. There is drama and action, and Faora is allowed to shine through her philosophical intelligence and her military code. When Kryptonians battle, there is ample destruction! And Superman is fast busy to fight off the invaders while protecting the U.S. Army soldiers. Superman’s punches are explosive and the apparition of heat vision reveals the certain madness and angst characteristic of the Kryptonian loner. Man of Steel appears definitely patriotic for it seems to paint the U.S. Army in a heroic light: they are visibly outmatched, both genetically and technologically by the more advanced aliens, and yet, they fight on with courage and dedication. Science fictions, here, is painted in a realistic setting, a small town with its IHOP restaurant and its shopping centers, amidst a battle of epic proportions. Here, Man of Steel succeeds in well-choreographed battles that foretell the future of Dragon Ball Z cinematic adaptations.
Zod’s master plan is revealed in the third act of the movie: He intends to terraform the Earth and create a New Krypton where the atmosphere and topography of the Earth are modified to fit Kryptonian physiology using a gravity weapon called a World Engine. Alien invasions are not new in literature and cinema, and it is safe to say, neither in Hollywood. The film raises the important question of evolution and of its associated precept — “the survival of the fittest” — where the strong prey on the weak. Is it defensible for a more advanced alien race to eradicate another species for the purpose of re-claiming its lost heritage and re-live the long past glory days of its civilization? Zod and Faora are guided by an evolutionary morality that seems to justify genocide on the basis that their more advanced alien heritage entitles them to eradicate an entire population of human beings. Basically, a form of Social Darwinism that recalls the historical practice of eugenics during the 20th century and the myth of improving the genetic pool of humanity by eradicating its least fit members. For Superman, however, “Krypton had its chance!”
Superman and the U.S. Army succeed in thwarting the Kryptonian invasion, sending them into the Phantom Zone. The final battle with Zod, seems to deprive the audience of its energy and be the expression of a certain depression by its director. In fact, it appears excessive though, spectacular. Man of Steel seems to introduce in Zod, an interesting villain, who despite his cruelty, has mitigating circumstances for, he was genetically engineered to act in the best interests of his species. The neck snap, remains one of the most controversial decisions of Zack Snyder’s career, for, by making Superman a killer, the film seems to question his own morality and contradict decades of on-screen portrayal of Superman as a morally upright person committed to never take a life, instead always finding another way in order to protect it.
For all its criticism, Man of Steel was a financially successful film. Though, it revealed the cultural disconnect that exists in the general audiences for the character of Superman, who at times, seems to appear too much as Jesus Christ. Superman Returns seems to have voiced the perceptible impression that post-modern man does not need a savior, but would rather, save himself.
The film stands as An Ideal of Hope, one that attempts to re-assert the place of Superman as an alien, one who is not human, in a world that holds him in distrust, and who, nevertheless is willing to sacrifice his life in order to be its protector. In contemporary culture, art plays the important function of entertainment; at the same time, it generates questioning for it continues to create wonder and seize the imagination. This is only a reflection of one fact: art continues to move culture, and is the final bulwark against totalitarian power. The story of Superman, is one that reveals the power of life and in this particular iteration, evidences the current zeitgeist, one of a people that has grown disaffected with its ideals and standing in distrust of the alien in response to the threat of terrorism and financial instability.
The myths of yesteryear, used to function as the cultural narrative that united the people. Since the 20th century, science fiction has steadily replaced that role because science has become the final authority. Today, art continues its important work of defining an era, but also of paving the way for the future. The degree of freedom of a civilization, can be measured in its artistic activity. The greatest threat to the totalitarianism of Communism is not the philosopher, theologian or political activist; it is the artist.
The greatest threat to the totalitarianism of Communism is not the philosopher, theologian or political activist; it is the artist.
“Next time they shine your light in the sky, don’t go to it. The Bat is dead. Bury it. Consider this mercy.”
– Superman, “Batman v. Superman: Dawn of Justice”
Prometheus brought the beginnings of culture to mankind by stealing fire from the gods, particularly from Zeus, and granting it to humans. This a truth of common Greek mythology passed down the generations through the ages, and which has served the function of explaining the origins of humanity and the process of its evolution on the Earth. Myth, serves that part, which Lex Luthor summates in the well known dictum: “knowledge is power”, in this instance, technology, skill, or art, are the source of power and ability. This power, is reflected in the ascension of the human species since prehistoric times; with fire, the human being evolves in his diet and his nutrition, expands his habitat, develops new economic habits and social roles, and grows in his communion with nature and in his society with the other. Slowly, he attains to true humanity, if not, personality.
Batman v. Superman: Dawn of Justice moves like an adapted comic book superhero drama, deftly bringing together different comic book storylines, drawing inspirations from The Dark Knight Returns and The Death of Superman. It reads in part as a political piece in its statement on the avowed and cavalier interventionism of the United States, symbolized in the rogue actions of America in the face of terrorism and the apparently irresponsible attitude of Superman himself who rescues Lois Lane from certain death at the cost of his reputation and in disregard for the lives affected. This forms the premise of the story, a narrative that examines the perception of the Superman by the humans through the vengeful eyes of Bruce Wayne, who from the events of Man of Steel vows to exact retribution and deal with the threat, political, human, and cataclysmic that the Man of Steel poses as a result of the invasion of the Earth by the more advanced Kryptonian aliens; indeed, the Dark Knight is forced to watch the destruction of his Wayne Tower in Metropolis with the associated weight of deaths and human suffering. Eminently, the movie is psychological and dramatic, as it progresses through dramatic events that pace preponderantly the life of disturbed Bruce Wayne from the beginning scene of his parents’ funeral, to their prior death, to the action scene in Metropolis which leaves a decided Batman committed on the path to vengeance.
From their inception, Batman and Superman have figured as opposite, but perhaps, complementary sides of the same coin; their origin relates the operation of contradictory forces at work and present within humanity: transcendence found in the desire for otherworldliness and the surpassing of the capacities of the human nature is found in the tale of the Superman, who in reality is a child of the stars, an alien come to announce new times of civilization for humanity, in which man attains to veritable godhood as he overcomes the limitations of physics and fulfills the demands of morality in a heroism that is a never-ending quest for justice, that desire for the ultimate conquest of good and of compassion; opposite, is the immanence of the Batman, in a darkness that is worn even on his spandex costume, which elicits fear in the hearts of the cowardly lot, an urban legend that thrives on the shadows to exact the justice of a vigilante whose existence is the fruit of human evolution, of a progress that is transhuman and which delineates the path for humanity through the mastery of the weapons of fear and strict discipline for the human heart. One, is a hero, burdened with the weight of the world, the influence of public perception, and the care for his beloved, the other is a vigilante, a hero tortured by his tragic past, a trauma that has set him from an early age on a crusade to right society’s wrongs on his own resources, at the cost of his own sanity, of his social relations, and of his true heritage.
It is a mise en scene in fact, driven by paranoia, a motivating factor in the conflict that animates the central characters: Batman believes Superman to be a threat to human existence, Superman sees Batman as a vigilante with no respect for the law nor heroism. Both are tragic figures, destinies guided by their tragic pasts, united in a common maternal name, yet, who fail to conciliate their common objectives, particularly due to the over-arching masterful stroke of Lex Luthor, who manigances their confrontation and seems to enlighten their philosophical differences: Superman seeks acceptance in a world in which he is inherently an alien, and Batman seeks a validation of his traumatic experiences in the quest for domination. Both protagonists are staged through a juxtaposition of their lives and of their conflictual struggles, and when they are in confrontation as superheroes for the first time, it is conflict and antipathy that are elicited.
“And now you will fly to him, and you will battle him to the death. Black and blue. Fight night. The greatest gladiator match in the history of the world: God versus man; day versus night; Son of Krypton versus Bat of Gotham!” — Lex Luthor
Zack Snyder does not spend much screen time articulating their philosophical psychology, limiting their dialogue to terse interesting lines which highlight their inherent antagonism of one another. In reality, the film operates in a sense a parallelism between characters that are a yin and a yang, night and day, darkness and light, evil and good and who seem to complement each other’s innate dynamism, questioning in the end their heroism. Indeed, who in the confrontation is the true hero of the narrative? The paranoid Bat driven to frenzied madness by his belief in an existential threat, or the omnipotent God who is not willing to rise above his revulsion for the Gotham hero in order to save his very mother? The question to be asked is whether good and evil are necessary to each other’s life, that is, whether their interaction contributes to their common enlightenment, for in this movie, the lines of heroism are blurred by the prospect of death and the intoxication of mental paranoia. If Lex Luthor is the villain of the story, he is in reality merely its sage, its Prometheus, who brings enlightenment to the yin and the yang through the excitation of their respective fires, delineating that in the end it is Batman who is the villain in need of Redemption.
Luthor poses pertinent philosophical questions on the permanence of Evil in the world: he reduces the conundrum to an affair of an inadequacy between Divine Goodness and Divine Omnipotence, showing that the enduring Evil prevents from the absolute existence of either attribute in God. In reality, his challenge to Superman leads him to doubt his own goodness, revealing the frailty of his humanity and his moral code, which remains constantly renewed in his love for Lois Lane and in his attachment for his mother, who stands as his moral compass. Does Good have a limit, and is Evil the limit of Good itself? Or perhaps, is life inherently tragic and is there no power that can liberate man from suffering and the eventuality of death?
Batman v. Superman reveals that conflict in life is oblivious to fairness and that often the wrong side can bring about a victory despite having paranoid reasons and a faulty if not fractured, vision of reality. Tragedy and conflict, are then, up to chance and randomness, or perhaps to freedom, destiny and of the inherent interplay of the forces that are the basis for human personality? The answer remains a mystery, and is revealed in the fact that at the moment when life seems at its darkest hour, the unexpected, the wondrous of a miracle and of a divine intervention can grant it new fervor, as Wonder Woman makes her impressive appearance in costume to save Batman from the monstrous Doomsday. Doomsday serves to fulfill the spectacular, in a world demanding more blockbuster entertainment in its motion pictures, his display of power provokes a wanton destruction that fulfills the need of fantasy, a certain cathartic release from the dramatic tension that has paced the movie till the apparition of the Kryptonian deformity. Here, political intrigue and psychological demonism enters the realm of the comic book superhero with its tour de force, its manifestations of metahuman powers, abilities beyond mortal ken, in a battle of gods and monsters that instills fears even in the hearts of the bravest, such as the Dark Knight.
The central protagonist, Superman encounters in Wonder Woman a powerful ally, an equal of sorts that arouses his admiration and fills him with renewed fire. Here, the rhythm of the musical score takes on the urgency of a cool, and jerky song of a raspy and sorcerous nature, the fruit of the genius of Hans Zimmer and Junkie XL. In the predicament of Lois Lane, comes the realization that conflict armed with power must inevitably face destiny, or perhaps, a resolution of tension. Superman in the contemplation of Doomsday’s savagery senses his true place, as a Savior who loves a world that in the end does not accept nor understand him, safe in the arms of his confidante with whom he shares his life, “you are my world”, he tells Lois.
Tragedy and conflict, then, are eminently a matter of altruism, of a realization that the fire of conflict is resolved in a Passion, the performance of sacrifice that liberates destiny in freedom and love, and grants the power to transform the human soul, convert the human heart, and enable to see a vision of life in a new way. Voire, tragedy and conflict find their resolution in the conquest of the narrative that is life itself in the use of weakness and epic grandeur that is the act of selflessness. Superman succeeds in dealing with the lethal threat by overcoming his exposure to Kryptonite and using the lance as a weapon to stop Doomsday permanently. Comic book drama is a reproduction of the mythology of yesteryear, founded on a science-fictional universe transposed with the narrative dynamics and the values of the post-modern atmosphere, granted a new medium in their representation via the art of the cinema. The filmmakers pursue the Christ metaphor to its determined conclusion, for Superman’s sacrifice despite its lack of narrative construction with the DC Extended Universe resumes the imagery established in Man of Steel, that of a giant amidst the world, a Protector against the wishes of humanity and despite its suspicions, who makes the ultimate sacrifice in order to ensure its future. The characters are certainly affected by such an action, and the film ends with the assurance that the story is to continue, moving forward the tale of an alien from another world who overcame the drama of life with a message of hope: that belief in the ultimate protection of life is the strength that resolves all conflict.